34388-013: Second Education Sector Development
Project Data Sheet (PDS): Details
The objectives of the Project are to supplement the policy initiatives under the Program and to enhance equitable access, improve the quality of lower and upper secondary education, and provide demand-driven, community-based skills training opportunities mainly for the out-of-school youth, in underserved areas through lower and upper secondary education opportunities, and community-based skills training in poor communes. It will support key policy development in these areas; complete the infrastructure requirements of lower secondary education, and consolidate the gains of recent years; establish an initial network of high quality upper secondary model schools, provide schools in districts where there are none, and rehabilitate existing upper secondary schools where needed; enhance capacity of national and provincial training boards to facilitate skills training in the poorest communes; introduce a sustainable skills training voucher system; and strengthen standards monitoring at upper secondary and technical and vocational education and training (TVET) and skills training levels.
Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy
Despite notable improvements in Cambodia's education sector in the last decade, poverty-related constraints such as the lack of facilities in the poorest, more remote and underserved districts and communes, and inadequate resources to expand poverty-targeted incentives programs, remain. The proposed Project will enhance equitable access to education services and improve the quality of lower and upper secondary education, and provide demand-driven, community-based skills training opportunities in underserved areas. It will support a reform in education targeted at establishing a market-responsive education and training system that will enable an increased level of educational attainment in the workforce and subsequent increase in household income. ADB has been a lead donor in supporting a sectorwide approach for education in Cambodia, leading to the formulation of an education strategic plan (ESP) and education sector support program (ESSP) in 2001. The Government and donors approved the reform program at a roundtable meeting in June 2001. Subsequent joint ESSP reviews in 2002 and 2003 have reaffirmed the policy and strategic directions of reform and have resulted in additional donor support. Partners have endorsed a common policy action matrix and sector performance benchmarks, indicators, and targets to guide the joint monitoring process and provide a focus for and modalities of donors assistance. ADB has led policy-based support through an ESDP sector development loan approved in late 2001. This ESDP I loan has provided the initial impetus for performance-based monitoring, and has assisted MoEYS and donors in negotiating agreed increases in government spendings on education.
Increased level of educational attainment among new entrants to the workforce, and increased average household income of skills training beneficiaries.
Description of Outcome
To increase access to basic and post-basic educational services and improve education quality and skill training standards.
Progress Towards Outcome
Net enrollment ratio (NER) in primary education of 94.8 percent in school year (SY) 2009/10. This indicates a 2.9% gain against an NER in the SY2004/05 (at 91.9). The average NER at secondary education has grown by 7.95%, from 17.7% in SY2004/05 to 25.65% in SY2009/10. The survival rate from Grades 1 to 6 at national level also increased from 48.15 percent (47.55% for female) in SY2004-05 to 61.73 percent (63.76% for girls) in 2008-09. The transition rate to lower and upper secondary education is 79.5 percent and 72.4 percent in SY 2008-09, respectively. Number of incomplete primary schools has been reduced from 19% in SY2007-08 to 18% in SY2009-10. More than 340 incomplete primary schools upgraded to be complete primary schools through the ADB-financed JFPR from 2005-2008. MOEYS is implementing fast track initiative program to further reduce number of incomplete primary schools. Number of students passing grade 12 exam has been increased from 19,000 in 2004 to 51,565 (22,394 female) in SY 2007-08. MOEYS constructed 15 resource centers (ESDP I) for developing staff capacities especially those at provinces which does not have provincial training centers (PTTCs). The Ministry also revised training programs for basic education teachers to accommodate the increasing needs in mobilizing teachers to remote area. Training materials are being reviewed and developed.
Description of Project Outputs
Output 1: Improved allocation to the education sector Output 2: Increased access to pro-poor financing and facilities Output 3: Improved quality and internal efficiency Output 4: Enhanced management and decentralization of education services
Status of Operation/Construction or Implementation Progress
Component 1: 329 LSS built against the original project target of 400 LSS. The number of lower-secondary students enrolled in ESDP II schools was 53,795 (of whom 25,962 were girls) in 2009-10, compared to total nation-wide enrolments of 605,707 (287,105 girls). It is expected that the total 329 LSS in rural areas will absorb 8-9% of the total LS enrolment and 9-11% of the total female enrolment nationwide in the forthcoming academic year 2010-11. Component 2: 25 new upper secondary schools were built as planned absorbing an enrolment of 3,898 students (1,650 girls) in SY 2008-09 and additional 18 resource blocks constructed and equipped with science equipments and computers located in urban and provincial towns. The resource blocks management guidelines were issued by the EA to ensure the smooth running and sustaining of the resource blocks. The sustainable development of the schools and resource blocks are issues to be further investigate during the PCR mission. Component 3: The TVET activities were highly satisfactory absorbing 161,389 trainees (59% female) under the Voucher Skills Training Program (VSTP), exceeding the target of 34.5%. A tracer study within six months after training found that three quarters of the trainees (76%) applied their skills or had jobs after training, and their family incomes on average had doubled. Three training modalities were offered (community, enterprise, and center-based) with the vast majority (96.5%) being community-based training. Though almost all the trainees completing the enterprise-based training are employed at their respective enterprises, a total of 77% of all trainees from all training modalities managed to be employed or self-employed in their neighborhoods or provinces within three months after completing the training. A Battambang PTC study reveals that those who are employed by enterprises earn an average of US$92 per month, while those who are self-employed earn an average of US$225 per month. To put these amounts into perspective, the 2007 poverty line for a rural family of 5 was about $89 per month, while the 2007 poverty line for an urban family of 5 was about $101 (not including Phnom Penh). Around 95% of the skills training activities undertaken under the Voucher Skills Training Program (VSTP) were community-based covering 210 communes in 53 districts of the 7 provinces namely Siem Reap, Svay Rieng, Takeo, Kampong Chhang, Stung Treng, Battambang and Kampot provinces.
Involuntary Resettlement: C
Indigenous Peoples: C
Stakeholder Communication, Participation and Consultation
During Project Design
Beneficiaries, partners, and other stakeholders were consulted during the PPTA implementation, fact finding, and appraisal through various workshops. A poverty analysis was completed based on poverty-education mapping by MOEYS. This analysis covered poverty and education indicators at national, provincial, district, and commune levels for education participation rates, availability of primary and secondary education facilities, internal efficiency measures, availability of experienced teachers, and education resource distribution. A gender-impact assessment was completed including systemic and targeted interventions to ensure equitable access to primary and secondary education by ensuring school places closer to home; water and sanitation facilities in schools for girls; incentives for more equitable deployment of female school directors and teachers; targeted scholarships for poor girls in lower secondary schools; and strategies for more equitable access for females to managerial positions in education.
Status of Covenants
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Project Data Sheets (PDS) contain summary information on the project or program. Because the PDS is a work in progress, some information may not be included in its initial version but will be added as it becomes available. Information about proposed projects is tentative and indicative.